Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurologic disorder that causes the brain to shrink (atrophy) and brain cells to die. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that affects a person's ability to function independently.
Early signs of illness include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to perform everyday tasks.
Dementia is an umbrella term for a collection of symptoms caused by disorders affecting the brain and impacting memory, thinking, behavior and emotions. The most common is Alzheimer's disease, which affects 50-60% of people with dementia. Other types of dementia include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia. Dementia can also sometimes affect people under the age of 65. This is called dementia praecox.
Our brain is made up of more than 86 billion nerve cells, more than the stars in the Milky Way. Dementia damages nerve cells that are no longer able to communicate effectively, which impacts how our bodies function.
Every person is unique, and dementia affects people differently – no two people will have symptoms that develop in the same way. An individual’s personality, general health and social situation are all important factors in determining the impact of dementia on him or her.
Symptoms vary between Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia, but there are broad similarities between them all. The most common early signs of dementia are memory loss and a reduction in practical abilities, which can lead to withdrawal from work or social activities. If you think that these problems are affecting your daily life, or the life of someone you know, you should talk to your doctor, or encourage them to talk to theirs.
Scientists continue to resolve the complex brain changes involved in Alzheimer's disease. Changes in the brain can begin a decade or more before symptoms appear. During this very early stage of Alzheimer's disease, toxic changes occur in the brain, including abnormal accumulations of proteins that form amyloid plaques and tau tangles. Previously healthy neurons stopped working, lose their connections to other neurons, and die. Many other complex brain changes are also thought to play a role in Alzheimer's disease.
The damage initially appears to take place in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, which are parts of the brain essential for memory formation. As more and more neurons die, additional parts of the brain are affected and begin to shrink. In the final stage of Alzheimer's disease, the damage is extensive, and the brain tissue has shrunk considerably.
Dementia is a collection of symptoms that can be caused by several different disorders. Problems with thinking, communication and memory are all signs of dementia. Alzheimer's disease is more common in older people, although it can also affect people in their 30s and 40s. Early-onset (or younger-onset) Alzheimer's disease is defined as Alzheimer's disease that develops before the age of 65. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease affects only a small percentage of patients with Alzheimer's disease. When illness strikes, many of them are in their 40s and 50s. Different types of dementia have different effects on people, and each person will have their own set of symptoms. Two or more of these symptoms must be present for a person to be diagnosed, and the symptoms must be severe enough to interfere with daily life.
• Early symptoms of dementia
• Causes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease
• Risks and symptoms
• Different diagnostics and therapeutic approaches
According to the researchers, several risk factors influencing the likelihood of contracting one or more types of dementia have been discovered. Some of these variables can be modified, others cannot. Alzheimer's disease, according to researchers, does not have a single cause. It is most likely caused by a combination of variables including genetics, lifestyle, and environment. Factors that increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease have been identified by scientists. While some risk factors, such as age, family history and genetics, are immutable, new data reveals that there are other aspects we can control. Although age is the most well-known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, these diseases are not a natural part of aging. Although age increases the risk of Alzheimer's, it is not a direct cause of the disease.
• Genetic factors
• Lifestyle factors
• Stress and mental health
• Modifiable risk factors
A biomarker is a characteristic that can be objectively measured and assessed as a sign of normal biological or pathological processes, or of pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. A perfect biomarker is one that is reproducible, stable over time, widely available, and directly represents the disease process in question. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common dementias in older people worldwide. A combination of clinical criteria, including a neurological exam, mental status tests, and brain imaging, is used to make a preliminary diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease becomes difficult based on previous clinical tests, especially in people with mild or early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, biomarkers that show strong symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and give a conclusive diagnosis of early AD become necessary.
· Biomarkers in diagnostics
· Proteomic biomarkers
· Pharmacogenomic biomarkers
· DNA biomarkers
· Biochemical markers
· Molecular biomarkers
When a person has problems remembering things, learning new things, concentrating, or making decisions that influence their daily lives, they are said to have cognitive impairment. Mild to severe cognitive impairment occurs. People with moderate cognitive impairment may perceive changes in their cognitive skills but continue to be able to carry out their daily activities. There is no single disease or condition that causes cognitive impairment, and it is not limited to a specific age group. Cognitive impairment can be caused by Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, as well as conditions including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and developmental difficulties. It is expensive to have a cognitive impairment. People with cognitive impairment are admitted to the hospital more than three times as often as people who are admitted for another reason. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are projected to be the third most expensive disease to treat.
· Diagnosis and Management of Cognitive Impairment
· Sleep Duration and Cognitive Decline
· Recognizing Cognitive Impairment
· The Impact of Age on Cognition
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. After Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies (LCD) is one of the most common forms of dementia. Due to clinical heterogeneity and overlap with other neurodegenerative disorders, DLB can be difficult to diagnose. The descriptive point, where ratios are calculated for communities and populations to explain observed phenotypic variances by identifying risk variables, to be examined in epidemiological investigations of dementia. Dementia rates are increasing at an alarming rate in all regions of the world, and this is linked to the aging of the population.
• Epidemiological data
• Neuropathology and pathogenesis
Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementia disease and is a progressive, permanent, and incurable neurodegenerative disease. It generally begins after the age of 60 and lasts from 8 to 12 years. Cognitive deterioration, loss of functional autonomy, changes in behavior and increased care needs are all symptoms of the slow and steady progression of this disease. The burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles has been shown to have a pathological correlate of cognitive impairment in clinicopathologic studies. The most common symptom of Alzheimer's disease is persistent impairment of episodic memory.
• Clinical characteristics
• Clinical manifestations
• Typical AD
• Early onset AD
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Short-term memory loss is the most common symptom in patients, followed by executive dysfunction, confusion, agitation, and behavioral abnormalities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of permanent and progressive dementia. Alzheimer's disease, for example, is a brain disorder that causes dementia. Dementia is often caused by a complicated combination of circumstances, including our age, medical history, and lifestyle, as well as our genes. The majority of dementia cases are not caused by genes we inherit from our parents. Our physical characteristics, such as eye color and size, are determined by our genes. They may be able to predict whether or not we can get the disease under certain circumstances.
• Genes and late Alzheimer's disease
• Genes and early onset of Alzheimer's disease
• Genes and frontotemporal dementia
• Genes and vascular dementia
• Genes and dementia with Lewy bodies
• Role of genes in dementia and Alzheimer's disease
Geriatric psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in older people. Geriatric psychiatry deals with mental health problems in older people. Due to the worldwide increase in the number of people surviving to old age, its importance increased dramatically at the end of the 20th century. Geriatric psychiatry seeks strategies to prevent dementia and to identify and treat depression and other illnesses in the elderly as early as possible. Geriatric psychiatry has been called "general psychiatry with a twist". Working with elderly patients requires a psychiatrist to be exceptionally adaptable, with a wide range of knowledge and abilities suited to the assessment of mental and behavioral problems in the elderly.
• Geriatric psychiatry
• Social factors
• Role of caregivers
The research and treatment of people with disorders of the nervous system is central to this discipline of clinical neurology. A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system. The nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The brain and spinal cord are included.
Neurophysiology is a branch of medicine that analyzes central and peripheral neural systems by observing bioelectrical activity, both spontaneous and induced. It includes pathophysiology research as well as clinical strategies for diagnosing disorders affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the discipline of clinical neurophysiology, tests are not limited to those performed in the laboratory. It is considered a follow-up to a neurology consultation.
Neurosurgery (also known as neurological surgery) is a branch of medicine that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions of the spine, brain, and nervous system. The surgical specialty of neurosurgery addresses diseases and abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord.
• Neurological progress
• Neurodegenerative disorders
• Neurological disorders
Caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease or another type of dementia is a long, demanding and emotionally draining experience. There are more than 16 million people caring for someone with dementia in the United States, and many more around the world. Because there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease or dementia, your care and support are usually the most important factors in improving your loved one's quality of life. When you see your loved one's memories fade and their skills deteriorate, caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease or dementia can feel like a series of grief experiences. Dementia causes people to change and behave in unexpected ways, which can be distressing or unsettling. Caregivers and their patients may experience feelings of bewilderment, irritation, and despair as a result of these changes.
· Family caregivers
· Professional caregivers
· Caregiver mental health
Caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease or another kind of dementia is a long, demanding, and emotionally draining experience. There are more than 16 million people caring for someone with dementia in the United States, and many more across the world. Because there is presently no treatment for Alzheimer's or dementia, your caregiving and support are typically the most important factors in improving your loved one's quality of life. As you see your loved one's memories fade and skills deteriorate, caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease or dementia might feel like a series of grieving experiences. Dementia causes people to change and behave in unexpected ways, which can be distressing or unsettling. Both caregivers and their patients may experience feelings of bewilderment, irritation, and despair because of these changes.
• Family Caregivers
• Professional Caregivers
• Mental Health of Caregivers
Dementia is a word used to describe loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other thinking skills severe enough to affect daily life. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. Dementia is not a single disease; it is an umbrella term that encompasses a wide range of medical conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, like heart disease. Abnormal brain changes create the disorders included under the umbrella term "dementia". These alterations lead to a deterioration in thinking skills, also called cognitive skills, severe enough to interfere with daily life and autonomy. They also have an impact on his conduct, his emotions, and his relationships.
· Memory loss
· Related dementia
· Disease-related to dementia and AD
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